LISTADO DE CIUDADANOS CUBANOS IMPEDIDOS DE VIAJAR FUERA DE #CUBA POR RAZONES DE DISCRIMINACION POLITICA AL MENOS UNA VEZ DURANTE 2019 Y HASTA FEBRERO DE 2020 – MONITOREADO POR EL INSTITUTO PATMOS

Lidier Hernández Sotolongo

En el mes de febrero de 2020 se elevó la lista de ciudadanos cubanos impedidos de salir fuera de Cuba por evidentes razones de discriminación política. El mes comenzó con el escándalo de cinco activistas impedidos de volar a Bruselas para presentar en el Parlamento Europeo el proyecto Cartas de Cuba para la Unión Europea al que había convocado Civil Rights Defenders: Amaury Pacheco del Monte, del Movimiento San Isidro; Cristina Rodríguez Pentón, pastora, representante en Cuba del Ministerio internacional “De Mujer a Mujer”; Kirenia Yalit Núñez Pérez, coordinadora de la Mesa de Diálogo de la Juventud Cubana; Manuel Cuesta Morúa, Promotor de la Propuesta 2020 y Maydolis González, directora de DemoCuba.

En el mes sobresale la regulación a Lidier Hernández Sotolongo, residente en Uruguay, a quien, tras unos días de visita en Cuba en los cuales actualizó su pasaporte, al acudir al aeropuerto junto a su esposa para volver a Uruguay, le fue prohibida la salida como represalia por sus protestas ante la Embajada de Cuba en dicho país. En el presente listado Lidier es el segundo caso, tras Iliana Hernández Cardoso, quien es residente en España a donde se le impide volver. Tanto Iliana como Lidier constituyen una seria advertencia para cualquier cubano que resida en el extranjero que viaje a Cuba, si le permiten entrar, la posibilidad de volver a salir quedará en decisión del sistema.      

Es de destacar también el impedimento para viajar a cuatro colaboradores del Centro de Estudios Convivencia quienes fueron impedidos de participar en el VI Encuentro de Pensamiento que tuvo lugar el 15 y 16 de febrero en FIU en Miami: Ángel María Mesa Rodríguez, María del Carmen Gort Henríquez, Rosalia Viñas Lazo, y Yoandy Izquierdo Toledo, este último, no pudo participar tampoco en la VI Semana Social Católica de la Archidiócesis de Miami; y de Reinaldo Marcial Escobar Casas, de 14ymedio, quien tampoco pudo viajar al Encuentro de Pensamiento por la regulación que arrastra desde el mes anterior.

A los casos anteriores se suman Yoel Suárez Fernández e Ismario Rodríguez Pérez, que engrosan el número de periodistas incluidos en esta lista; Luis Manuel Otero Alcántara, el de los artistas; y Eliécer Porto, representante del Movimiento Cristiano Liberación (MCL) en Santiago de Cuba, al de los activistas políticos.

Dos casos del año anterior, que no se habían incluido en el listado, se incluyen ahora, tras recibir el contacto y petición de los mismos, se trata de Raúl Ciriaco Borges Álvarez, quien fue informado el 23 de octubre que estaba “regulado”, él es el Presidente del Partido por la Unidad Democrática Cristiana de Cuba, y el padre del preso político Ernesto Borges Pérez, quien el 17 de julio de este año cumplirá 22 años en prisión. Y el otro caso es el de Isbel Diaz Torres, Director de Guardabosques, organización ecologista independiente; que fue informado de la prohibición de salida el 19 de julio de 2019 para impedirle participar entonces en el XXIX reunión anual de la Asociación para el Estudio de la Economía de Cuba (ASCE) que se celebró en Miami del 25 al 27 de julio de 2019. 

A continuación, el listado, que suma los nombres de aquellos que estuvieron regulados al menos una vez en 2019, más quienes se añaden en los primeros dos meses de 2020:

  1. Abascal Zamora, Sissi (Matanzas)
  2. Abascal Sánchez, Yamilka (Pinar del Río)
  3. Acón Sardiñas, María Josefa (Habana)
  4. Acosta Guillén, Arturo Feliciano (Habana)
  5. Acosta Peña, Pedro (Habana)
  6. Acosta Rodríguez, Camila (Habana)
  7. Aleaga Pesant, Julio (Habana)
  8. Alfaya Hernández, Nancy (Habana)
  9. Álvarez Bravo, José Alberto (Habana)
  10. Álvarez López, Julio César (Habana)
  11. Álvarez Mairata, Nelson Julio (Sagua la Grande, Villa Clara)
  12. Álvarez Pequeño, Benito (Isla de Pinos)
  13. Amela Hernández, Omar (Isla de Pinos)
  14. Arango Rodríguez, Isel (Camagüey)
  15. Armenteros Vázquez, Yosldán (Santa Clara, VC)
  16. Ayala Anazco, María de Lourdes (Holguín)
  17. Aveleira Rodríguez, Jorge Luis (Matanzas)
  18. Barrenechea Chávez, José Gabriel (Encrucijada, Villa Clara)
  19. Barges Hurtado, Yamilé (Habana)
  20. Baez Guerrero, Zaqueo (Habana)
  21. Benítez Rodríguez, María Mercedes (Habana)
  22. Berrio Sarda, Enix (Habana)
  23. Biscet González, Oscar Elías (Habana)
  24. Bravo López, Yoel (Santa Clara, VC)
  25. Boicet Potrillé, Oscar (Isla de Pinos)
  26. Borges Álvarez, Raúl Ciriaco (Habana)
  27. Broche de la Cruz, Magalis (Camajuaní, VC)
  28. Burunate Gómez, Caridad María (Colón, Matanzas)
  29. Burunate Gómez, Regla Rafaela (Colón, Matanzas)
  30. Cabrera Álvarez, Aimée de las Mercedes (Habana)
  31. Cardet Concepción, Eduardo – Velazco, Holguín
  32. Carreras Hernández, Felipe (Habana)
  33. Carrillo Hernández, Asunción (Colón, Matanzas)
  34. Castellanos, Yaser – La Habana
  35. Castro García, Deyli (Villa Clara)
  36. Castro Valentín, Ismael (Santa Clara, VC)
  37. Carmona Carmona, Niurka (Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba)
  38. Carvajal Montané, Acelia (Habana)
  39. Cervantes García, Jorge (Las Tunas)
  40. Colas, Ileana (Santiago de Cuba)
  41. Columbié Grave de Peralta, Dariém (Santiago de Cuba)
  42. Constantin Ferreiro, Henry (Camaguey)
  43. Cortina Rey, Amarilis (Habana)
  44. Couto Guzmán, Henry (Guantánamo)
  45. Coyula Pérez-Puelles, Regina (Habana)
  46. Cuba Delgado, Sara (Villa Clara)
  47. Cuesta Morúa, Manuel
  48. Curbelo Aguilera, Yeris (Caimanera, Guantánamo)
  49. Chaviano Montes, Hildebrando (Habana)
  50. de la Nuez Ramírez, Juan Alberto (Aguada de Pasajeros, Cienfuegos)
  51. de la Torre Montecino, Tania (Manzanillo, Granma)
  52. Del Sol Alfonso, Adrián (Santa Clara)
  53. Del Sol Pérez, Guillermo (Santa Clara)
  54. de Prada Esquivel, Moisés (Habana)
  55. Díaz Becerra, Onelsys (Pinar del Rio)
  56. Díaz Fleitas, Eduardo (Pinar del Rio)
  57. Díaz Silva, José (Habana)
  58. Díaz Torres, Isbel (Habana)
  59. Domínguez García, Víctor Manuel (Habana)
  60. Durán Domínguez, Yilber (Nuevitas, Camagüey)
  61. Durán Dalmau, Dulce Amanda (Habana)
  62. Durán Noa, Yanela (Habana)
  63. Echevarría Menéndez, Tania (Colón, Matanzas)
  64. Engroba González, Irisley (Aguada de Pasajeros, Cienfuegos)
  65. Escobar Casas, Reinaldo Marcial – La Habana
  66. Escobar Pérez, Luzbely (Habana)
  67. Escobedo Morales, Egberto Ángel (Habana)
  68. Estenoz, Yaudel (Ciego de Ávila)
  69. Esquivel Vieyto, Lourdes (Habana)
  70. Expósito Leyva, Adya (Guantánamo)
  71. Fania, Andy Luis (Ciego de Ávila)
  72. Ferrer García, José Daniel (Santiago de Cuba)
  73. Ferrer Tamayo, Julio Alfredo (Habana)
  74. Fernández Cuenca, Waldo (Habana)
  75. Fernández García, Zaray
  76. Fernández Izaguirre, Ricardo (Camagüey)
  77. Figueredo Cruz, Yunia (Habana)
  78. Flores García, Kirenia (Bayamo, Granma)
  79. Fonseca Viltre, Marelis (Manzanillo, Granma)
  80. Fornaris Ramos, José Antonio (Habana)
  81. Formigo, Yohana (Antilla, Holguín)
  82. Fuentes Lemet, Ramón (Isla de Pinos)
  83. Fuentes Madán, Claudio (Habana)
  84. Fumero, Alberto (La Habana)
  85. Galammame, Amado Calixto (Habana)
  86. García Basulto, Sol (Camagüey)
  87. García Fournier, Niober (Guantánamo)
  88. Garmendia Murt, Milagros (Habana)
  89. Genlui Hidalgo, Claudia – La Habana
  90. Gómez Guevara, Carlos Javier (Santa Clara, VC)
  91. Gómez Manzano, René (Habana)
  92. González Albernas, Matilde Alejandra (Camajuani, VC)
  93. González Arenas, Boris (Habana)
  94. González Leiva, Juan Carlos (Ciego de Ávila)
  95. González, Maydolis (Pinar del Río)
  96. González Reinoso, Pedro Manuel (Caibarién, VC)
  97. González Suárez, Eroises (Habana)
  98. González Valdés, Walkis (Camagüey)
  99. González Vivero, Maykel (Sagua la Grande, Villa Clara)
  100. Gort Henríquez, María del Carmen (Artemisa)
  101. Gottardi Gottardi, Emilio Alberto (Habana)
  102. Guerra Alfonso, Cecilia (Habana)
  103. Guerra, Ernesto (Habana)
  104. Heredia Morales, Yaquelin (Habana)
  105. Hernández Cardosa, Iliana (Habana)
  106. Hernández Carrillo, Iván (Colόn, Matanzas)
  107. Hernández de Armas, Carlos Sebastián (Cotorro, Habana)
  108. Hernández Sotolongo, Lidier (Cienfuegos)
  109. Herrera Calvo, Miriam (Habana)
  110. Hidalgo García, Damaris Mónica (Camajuaní, VC)
  111. Isaac Reyes, Elsa Licsy (Santiago de Cuba)
  112. Izquierdo Toledo, Yoandy (Pinar del Río)
  113. Jiménez Enoa, Abraham (Habana)
  114. Jiménez Sánchez, Ricardo (Santiago de Cuba)
  115. Labrada Varona, Maria Cristina (Habana)
  116. Ledea Ríos, Ana Rosa (Habana)
  117. Legrá Pacheco, Abdel (Habana)
  118. León Báez, Alida (Habana)
  119. León Valladares, Irina Caridad (San Juan y Martínez, Pinar del Río)
  120. León Rodríguez, Rafael (Habana del Este)
  121. León Velázquez, Manuel Alejandro (Guantánamo)
  122. Linares García, Librado (Camajuani, VC)
  123. López Canino, Agustín (Habana)
  124. López Cortés, Eduardo Ramón
  125. López Mora, Juan Michel (Isla de Pinos)
  126. López Nápoles, Adel Ramón- Nueva Gerona, Isla de Pinos
  127. Llanes Quintana, Dariel (San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque)
  128. Madrazo Luna, Jacqueline (Habana)
  129. Madrazo Luna, Juan Antonio (Habana)
  130. Manzanet Ortiz, Francisco Luis (Guantánamo)
  131. Mariño, Yordán (Velasco, Holguín)
  132. Márquez Frías, Santiago Emilio (Manzanillo, Granma)
  133. Marrero Burunate, Yisabel María (Matanzas)
  134. Martín, Aylin
  135. Martín Calderín, Miraida (Santiago de Cuba)
  136. Martínez Vaillant, Alexei (Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba)
  137. Mariño García, Iris (Camagüey)
  138. Matos Alonso, Michel (Habana)
  139. Mesa Crespo, Dora Leonor (Habana)
  140. Mesa Rodríguez, Ángel María (Artemisa)
  141. Mir Marrero, María Elena (Habana)
  142. Mojena Hernández, Katherine (Santiago de Cuba)
  143. Monteagudo Rivero, Liván (Las Tunas)
  144. Mora Montalvo, Alexei (Placetas, VC)
  145. Moreno Soto, Dianelis (Carlos Rojas, Jovellanos, Matanzas)
  146. Moreno Borrego, Juan Manuel (Habana)
  147. Morales Estrada, José Ernesto
  148. Moya Acosta, Angel Juan (Habana)
  149. Nápoles González, Maricel (Habana)
  150. Navarro Rodríguez, Félix (Perico, Matanzas)
  151. Navarro Álvarez, Sayli (Perico, Matanzas)
  152. Navarro Veloz, Osvaldo (Habana)
  153. Noriega Gutiérrez, Naiviv
  154. Núñez Pérez, Kirenia Yalit (Habana)
  155. Oliva Rivery, Carlos (Santiago de Cuba)
  156. Oliva Torres, Carlos Amel (Santiago de Cuba)
  157. Oliva Torres, Ernesto (Santiago de Cuba)
  158. Olivera Castillo, Jorge (Habana)
  159. Orraca Guerra, Lisandra (San Juan y Martínez, Pinar del Río)
  160. Ortiz, Antonio – San José, Mayabeque
  161. Ortiz Ramírez, Eduardo (Habana)
  162. Otero Alcántara, Luis Manuel (Habana)
  163. Pacheco del Monte, Amaury (Habana)
  164. Palacio Mogar, Fernando Edgardo (Habana)
  165. Palma Pupo, Eliecer (Holguín)
  166. Peña González, Aymara (Sancti Spíritus)
  167. Peñalver Cruz, Roseling (Habana)
  168. Pereira Díaz, Ricardo (Habana)
  169. Pérez Abreu, Zelandia de la Caridad (La Habana)
  170. Pérez Arias, Martha de los Ángeles (Isla de Pinos)
  171. Pérez Franco, Leonardo (Santiago de Cuba)
  172. Pérez González, Alfredo (Pinar del Rio)
  173. Pérez González, Ariel (Pinar del Rio)
  174. Pérez Mendoza, Adrián (Perico, Matanzas)
  175. Pérez Pérez, Armando Antonio (Caibarién, VC)
  176. Pérez Velázquez, Zuleidys Lisbet (Holguín)
  177. Piñeiro, Michel (Sancti Spíritus)
  178. Porto, Eliécer (Santiago de Cuba)
  179. Poveda Silva, Isael (Guantánamo)
  180. Pulido Viera, Jubiel Armando
  181. Pupo Carralero, Rolando (San Juan y Martínez, Pinar del Río)
  182. Quiñones Haces, Roberto de Jesús (Guantánamo)
  183. Quijano Silva, Soraya (Aguada de Pasajeros, Cienfuegos)
  184. Ramírez Álvarez, Osmel (Mayarí, Holguín)
  185. Ramírez, Carlos
  186. Ramírez Méndez, Mario Félix (Camagüey)
  187. Ramos Herrería, Leticia (Cárdenas, Matanzas)
  188. Rangel Manzano, Francisco (Matanzas)
  189. Remón García, Anay (Ana León) (Habana)
  190. Reyes Consuegra, Carlos Roberto (Cruces, Cienfuegos)
  191. Reyes, Saimi (Habana)
  192. Rigal Expósito, Joel (Guantánamo)
  193. Rigal Expósito, Ruth (Guantánamo)
  194. Rigal Rodríguez, Ramón (Guantánamo)
  195. Riverόn Betancourt, Ismael (Macareno, Santa Cruz del Sur, Camagüey)
  196. Robert Vera, Jorge Amado (Santiago de Cuba)
  197. Robert Salazar, Lisandra (Santiago de Cuba)
  198. Rodríguez Alonso, Leonardo Lino (Camajuaní, VC)
  199. Rodríguez Arroyo, Yaimel
  200. Rodríguez Lobaina, Rolando (Guantánamo)
  201. Rodríguez Pérez, Ismario (La Habana)
  202. Rodríguez Silva, Arelis (Artemisa)
  203. Rodríguez Becerra, Carlos Raimundo (Villa Clara)
  204. Rodríguez Díaz, Osvaldo (Cotorro, Habana)
  205. Rodríguez Camejo, Jorge Enrique (Habana)
  206. Rodríguez Ledesma, Charles Enchris (Güines, Mayabeque)
  207. Rodríguez García, Leandro (Camajuaní, VC)
  208. Rodríguez González, Dalila (Camajuaní, VC)
  209. Rodríguez Legrá, Josué (Palma Soriano, Santiago de Cuba)
  210. Rodríguez Lora, Inalkis (Camagüey)
  211. Rodríguez, Madelyn (Pinar del Río)
  212. Rodríguez Pentón, María Cristina (Santa Clara)
  213. Rodríguez Riverol, Jonniel (Placetas, VC)
  214. Rodríguez Rivero, Mayended
  215. Rodríguez Santiesteban, Alexander (Holguín)
  216. Rodríguez, Yusimí (Habana)
  217. Rojas Pérez, Dailén
  218. Romero Becerra, Yusleidy (Pinar del Río)
  219. Roque Cabello, Martha Beatriz (Habana)
  220. Roque Martínez, Jimmy (Habana)
  221. Ruiz Hernández, Iris (Habana)
  222. Salazar Infante, Ramón (Isla de Pinos)
  223. Salazar Pérez, Dayanis (Isla de Pinos)
  224. Sánchez Solís, Martha Liset (Los Arabos, Matanzas)
  225. Sánchez Perdigón, Yorsi Kelin (Sancti Spíritus)
  226. Sánchez Zaldívar, Alejandro (Artemisa)
  227. San Martín Albistur, Augusto César (Habana)
  228. Santana Capdesuñer, Roberto Miguel (Holguín)
  229. Serrano Díaz, Yadira (Santiago de Cuba)
  230. Soler Fernández, Berta (Habana)
  231. Sosin Martínez, Eileen (Habana)
  232. Suárez Fernández, Yoel (Habana)
  233. Tamayo González, Marthadela (Habana)
  234. Tabares López, Leydis (Camagüey)
  235. Toledano Valiente, Alayn (Santiago de Cuba)
  236. Torres Reyes, Iván René (Bayamo, Granma)
  237. Valdés Delgado, Javier (Pinar del Rio)
  238. Valdés Santana, Aida Manuela (Habana)
  239. Valle Roca, Lázaro Yuri (Habana)
  240. Valdivia Hernández, Roberto Martín (Ciego de Ávila)
  241. Vallín Almeida, Wilfredo (Habana)
  242. Velázquez Palmero, Eduard Alejandro (La Habana)
  243. Viñas Lazo, Rosalía (Pinar del Rio)
  244. Zamora Carmenate, Annia (Carlos Rojas, Jovellanos, Matanzas)
  245. Zamora García, Adriana (La Habana)
  246. Zerquera Borrell, Raúl Domingo (Trinidad, Sancti Spiritus)

Patmos Institute’s Criteria on the European Union’s Policy towards #Cuba

Letter #5 by Patmos Institute.

In July 2019, Civil Rights Defenders invited Cuban human rights defenders and civil society organisations to contribute with texts on how the European Union should work towards Cuba. This letter is written by Patmos Institute.

Patmos Institute’s Criteria on the European Union’s Policy towards Cuba: Analysis and Proposals on the Political Dialogue and Cooperation Agreement (PDCA)

On September 3, 2019, as part of the implementation of the PDCA, the first meeting of the Joint Cuba and European Union Committee took place in Havana. On September 9, this Joint Committee reviewed the implementation of the PDCA, during the fourth visit to Cuba of Federica Mogherini, EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. She presided over the meeting with Bruno Rodriguez, Cuban minister of Foreign Affairs. At this critical juncture of the PDCA implementation, it is valid to ask if it was worthwhile to cease the Common Position and initiate this new process.

The EU expected that at this phase of the implementation of the PDCA, alleged reforms would be taking place to accompany this process as a framework, but this has not occurred. In fact, the opposite has happened, even though Cuba says the contrary by alleging “continuity”. It is evident that if Cuba promised those reforms, it was to gain time while in power, to simultaneously obtain sources of financing. Due to this evident fraud, it would be logical for the EU modify or even suspend the implementation of the PDCA. The EU should not hesitate nor impose bureaucratic delays on this matter. In the same manner that the EU signed the PDCA with Cuba, and put an end to the Common Position (which guided relations with Cuba from 1996 to 2016), after the United States and Cuba announced and implemented its change in policy or thaw in relations, the EU should stop or put an end of the PDCA now, in harmony with the new US policy to Cuba and the EU’s own policies towards Cuba’s strategic partners, particularly Venezuela.

The relations that the EU has with Cuban government entities such as agencies, institutions, universities and companies are not balanced. It is not a relationship among equal partners because those entities only respond to the interests of the Cuban Communist Party (CCP); while the CCP elites behave as owners of everything and there continues to be no independence among the branches of government. Nothing can be expected in terms of cooperation from “them.” The cooperation is only for “it,” the omnipotent power. The risk that the EU faces with its cooperation is to continue to be extorted by that elite and become, to the eyes of the world and history, an accomplice of an authoritarian and failed system by providing help to the Cuban government, right when it needs it the most to continue trampling the rights of the people.

The time the EU has invested in its attempt to implement the agreement has been sufficient to confirm that the civil society organisations in Cuba linked to the government and loyal to the Communist Party are, in reality, appendages of the system, and the risks of cooperating with them are the same ones the EU faces by cooperating directly with the system; because these have been used in the past as a façade used to praise a government that tricks the world with its propaganda. This describes all communist governments; Cuba is not an exception, but a successful and active example.

Ideally, the EU and its Member States would cooperate with Cuban civil society, which openly promotes democracy and human rights, but this is blocked and prevented by the power that signed the PDCA with the EU. Regardless, the EU should seek cooperation, even if that means changing or suspending the PDCA, which would be expected under these circumstances. During the period of implementation of the PDCA, cooperation among these organisations has diminished when compared with the EU and Member States cooperation with Cuban civil society during the existence of the Common Position, when in reality the contrary was expected. With or without PDCA implementation, the EU should use all disposable means to cooperate with civil society organisations and to forge relations between Cuban and European civil society.

In practice, Cuban civil society has been excluded from the PDCA implementation process. This, solely, is enough reason to annul the PDCA and its parts. Also, in accordance to the U.S policy, the relations with civil society should be a top priority, and should be strengthened. It is notable that, in an inversely proportional manner, the U.S. strengthens its relations with civil society while stopping relations with the island’s political authorities. Recent examples show this:

  • The case of the evangelical pastors Ramón Rigal y Adya Expósito, sentenced to prison on April 22, 2019, by the Guantanamo Municipal Court (Tribunal Municipal de Guantanamo, TMG), for having challenged Cuba’s monopoly on education, which is completely political and ideological. They were charged with “illicit association”; their religious organisation not recognised. This set a dangerous precedent for many leaders of organisations that have been banned. An effect of this is the threat to also charge pastor Alayn Toledano Valiente;
  • The case of the Catholic attorney and independent journalist Roberto Quiñones, sentenced to prison on August 7 by the TMG for having expressed solidarity with the evangelical pastors’ case referred above;
  • The case of Guillermo del Sol, who started a hunger strike on August 12 because the Cuban government would not allow his son Adrian del Sol Alfonso to travel. His strike was in solidarity with the Cubans who are not allowed to travel to other countries. The ban is implemented under the euphemism of “regulated” (“regulado”). The IP has been monitoring this matter since July 2018. On July 13, 2018, IP published a list of 52 names of regulados. The names and numbers have varied since then, and currently there are 149. The list is attached as an appendix.

As examples of the attention given by the United States to these cases, there have been many statements by secretary of State Mike Pompeo, or direct visits by Mara Tekach, Chargé d’Affaires of the US Embassy in Cuba, on August 10, 2019, to Roberto de Jesus Quiñones at his house in Guantanamo; or the visit by Tim O. Hall, in charge of Political and Economic Affairs at the US Embassy in Cuba, to Guillermo del Sol at his house in Santa Clara. In none of these cases has there been similar or alternative actions by the EU or its member states.

The EU should completely stop the political dialogue, the cooperation dialogue and the commercial dialogue with the Cuban government, because Cuba has given more than enough reasons to do so; because of its systematic and increasing human rights violations of Cubans in and outside of the country; because of the evidence of its links to destabilisation efforts in Venezuela and Nicaragua, and its destabilisation attempts in many other parts of the hemisphere. In the Venezuelan case, Cuba’s interference and responsibility is so evident that it would be enough of a reason to cancel any agreement. The Cuban government does not only behave as a dangerous international criminal that establishes relations with other governments that threat international peace. It also tries, with failed attempts of discretion, to establish relations, stimulate and finance terrorist groups such as Hezbollah, or ETA, or narcoterrorists such as FARC or ELN. This has been occurring for decades.

Due to all of this, and because at this phase of the PDCA implementation the EU was expecting different circumstances than the ones at hand, the Member States that have not ratified the PDCA should not do so, and the Member States that did ratify it should withdraw from the Agreement.

About Patmos Institute

The Patmos Institute is a Cuban civil society organization founded in 2013 whose objectives are the exercise of interreligious dialogue; political incidence; the specific monitoring and defence of religious freedoms; and human rights education in general. Their work focuses on carrying out activities and initiatives, such as forums, workshops, and conferences, among others; with the aim of creating spaces for citizen participation throughout the island.